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Basic fail2ban installation and setup

fail2ban homepage: http://www.fail2ban.org. Please check [0] and [1] for more details.

1. Installation.

Enable the EPEL repos [1] and then 'yum install fail2ban'

2. Setup:

To work with Qmail/vpopmail, a filter and jail should be defined. a. # mcedit /etc/fail2ban/filter.d/vpopmail-fail.conf


  1. Looks for failed password logins to SMTP

failregex = vchkpw-smtp: password fail ([^)]*) [^@]*@[^:]*:<HOST>

ignoreregex =

b. # mcedit /etc/fail2ban/jail.conf (add this)

[vpopmail-fail] enabled = true filter = vpopmail-fail action = iptables[name=SMTP, port=smtp, protocol=tcp] logpath = /var/log/maillog maxretry = 1 bantime = 604800 findtime = 3600

c. Test the filter file:

  1. fail2ban-regex /var/log/maillog /etc/fail2ban/filter.d/vpopmail-fail.conf

Returns something like this, with n matches for the regex or 0 if no matches:

Failregex |- Regular expressions: | [1] vchkpw-smtp: password fail ([^)]*) [^@]*@[^:]*:<HOST> | `- Number of matches:

 [1] 123 match(es)

d. Reload config:

  1. fail2ban-client stop/start

e. Check the status of a jail:

  1. fail2ban-client status vpopmail-fail

Status for the jail: vpopmail-fail |- filter | |- File list: /var/log/maillog | |- Currently failed: 7 | `- Total failed: 225 `- action

 |- Currently banned: 109

| `- IP list: (...)

 `- Total banned:     109

NOTE: Once its starts running and the logs have matching strings, it will create iptables rules dropping that IP. But... when fail2ban reload and/or iptables restart and/or rebooting and/or the weekly logrotate, those rules are gone. bye bye! So... what to do?

- Before changes, do a '# service iptables save' and it will write them to a file, and after any change do '# service iptables restart' to make it load the saved set of rules; - Tune fail2ban to write IPs to /etc/fail2ban/ip.deny [3].

3.A little basic admin stuff

a. Check banned IPs: - by fail2ban:# fail2ban-client status vpopmail-fail - current iptables rules: # iptables -L -nv - To see IPs that fail2ban is saving for the next reload:

  1. cat /etc/fail2ban/ip.deny

b. How to unblock an IP: 1) Delete it from the current iptables rules:

  1. iptables -D fail2ban-SMTP -s -j DROP

2) remove it from /etc/fail2ban/ip.deny (maybe listed several times). 3) remove it from /etc/sysconfig/iptables (maybe listed several times).

4. References:

[0] http://www.mail-archive.com/qmailtoaster-list@qmailtoaster.com/msg30514.html [1] http://www.mail-archive.com/qmailtoaster-list@qmailtoaster.com/msg30551.html [2] http://fedoraproject.org/wiki/EPEL/FAQ#howtouse [3] http://n8wood.wordpress.com/2009/06/22/fail2ban-permanent-ssh-bans/


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